Juan Lu, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.D.

Director of Epidemiology Graduate Programs

Juan Lu, Ph.D., M.P.H., M.D.Associate Professor

Department: Division of Epidemiology

Phone: (804) 828-9786

Email: juan.lu@vcuhealth.org

One Capitol Square, 8th Floor, Room 826
830 E. Main Street
Richmond, VA 23219


  • PhD - Virginia Commonwealth University, 2010
  • MPH - Virginia Commonwealth University, 2001
  • MD - Suzhou University, 1983

Research Expertise

Outcomes and healthcare costs following traumatic brain injury, efficacy and effectiveness of intervention following traumatic brain injury, experimnetal and observational research designs in general, disparities in healthcare and related costs, sensitivity analysis and large database management.

Teaching Expertise

CCTR 630, Clinical Trials: Design Implications:
The course is intended for the research scientist in training. The goal is to sharpen the methodologic skills in designing experimental studies for clinical investigators. The course addresses theoretical and practical methods in designing clinical trials with emphasis on design implications and development of individual study protocols. The course focuses on designing intervention studies to achieve research objectives by selecting appropriate study samples, end points and trial designs. Specific topics include efficacy versus effectiveness trials and critiquing clinical trial protocols, with emphasis on evaluating strengths and weaknesses of the trial design.

EPID 651, Intermediate Epidemiologic Methods
The course is intended as a second year epidemiology methods course for doctoral students in epidemiology and related disciplinarians. The goal is to sharpen the methodologic skills in designing and conducting epidemiologic studies. The course addresses theoretical and practical methods in designing epidemiologic studies with emphasis on cohort, cross sectional and case-control study designs. The course focuses on designing epidemiologic studies to achieve research objectives by minimizing bias in design, data analysis and implementations. Specific topics include bias analysis, propensity score matching and critiquing epidemiologic studies in strengths and limitations.

EPID 652 Advanced Epidemiologic Methods and Data Analysis
Covering data analysis sections for cohort studies, including Cox Proportional-Hazards Regression and Poisson Regression models.

CCTR 631, Adaptive Clinical Trials: Design Implications
The course provides an overview of the theoretical framework and key concepts of adaptive design methods in clinical trials. The design and implementation process are discussed through real-world examples. The feasibility, validity, integrity and efficiency of the trial designs are stressed through comparisons between traditional fixed and adaptive trials.

CCTR 691, Pragmatic Clinical Trials
The course provides an overview of the frameworks and characteristics of pragmatic trial designs. The design process and implications are discussed through various real-world examples. The internal and external validity of the clinical trials are stressed between the pragmatic and exploratory trial designs.

EPID 649 Analysis of Health Datasets
The primary focus of this course will be to discuss a variety of public health related data sources and learn how to utilize information from these resources to address research questions and analyze data using SAS.


  • Outstanding Teacher Award, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine
  • Outstanding Teacher Award in Ph.D. Program, Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine
  • First place winner of Henry Stonnington Award for Review Articles, Journal of Brain Injury
  • Guest professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University, Norway
  • Exceptional Employment Award, Virginia Commonwealth University
  • Extraordinary Mentor and Teaching Effort Award,
    Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, VCU, School of Medicine
  • Outstanding Mentor Award
    Division of Epidemiology, Department of Family Medicine and Population Health,VCU, School of Medicine

Professional Affiliations

  • American Public Health Association
  • The Society for Clinical Trials
  • VCU CERSE Community

Selected Publications

  • Lu J, Britton E, Ferrance J, Rice E, Kuzel A, Dow A. Identifying Future High Cost Individuals within an Intermediate Cost Population. 2015 Qual Prim Care. 23(6):318-326.
  • Lu J, Copolillo A, Gary KG, Ward J, Niemeier J, Lapane K. Randomized Controlled Trials in Adult Traumatic Brain Injury: Compliance to the CONSORT Statement, Review Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 2015 April Volume: 96 Issue: 4 Pg: 702-14 ISSN: 0003-9993 PMID: 25497515
  • Lu. J, Roe C, Neimeier JP, Lapane KL, Juan Arango, Andelic N. Traumatic Brain Injury: Methodological Approaches to Estimate Health and Economic Outcomes Review J Neurotrauma. 2013 Dec 1;30(23):1925-33.
  • Lu. J, Gary KW, Neimeier JP, Ward J, Lapane KL (2012) Randomized Controlled Trials in Adult Traumatic Brain Injury. Review Brain Injury: 26(13-14):1523-48
  • Lu J, Marmarou A, Lapane L (2011) Impact of GOS Misclassification and Ordinal Outcome Analysis on Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trials. J Neurotrauma: 20;29(5):719-26
  • Lu J, Marmarou A, Lapane K, Turf E, Wilson JT (2010) A Method for Reducing Misclassification in the extended Glasgow Outcome Score J Neurotrauma: 27(5):843-52.
  • Maas AIR, Steyerberg EW, Marmarou A, McHugh GS, Lingsma HF, Butcher I, Lu J, Weir J, Roozenbeek B, Murray GD (2010) IMPACT Recommendations for Improving the Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Neurotherapeutics: 7; 127-134
  • Lu J, Murray GD, Steyerberg EW, Butcher I, Taylor GS, Lingsma H, Mushkudiani NA, Murray GD, Maas AIR Marmarou A. (2008) Effects of Glasgow Outcome Scale Misclassification on Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trials. J Neurotrauma: 25: 641-651
  • Marmarou A, Lu J, Butcher I, Taylor GS, Mushkudiani NA, Murray GD, Steyerberg EW, Maas AIR. (2007) The IMPACT database on traumatic brain injury: design and description. J Neurotrauma: 24 (2), 239-250.
  • Lu J, Roe C, Sigurdardottir S , Andelic N, Forslund MV. Trajectory of Functional Independent Measurements during First Five Years after Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.J Neurotrauma 2018 Jul 5;35(14):1596-1603. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
  • Andelic N, Arango-Lasprilla JC, Perrin PB, Sigurdardottir S, Lu J, Landa LO, Forslund MV, Roe C. Modeling of Community Integration Trajectories in the First Five Years after Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2016 Jan 1;33(1):95-100.
  • Yang S, Lu J, Eaton CB, Harpe S, Lapane KL. The choice of analytic strategies in inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighted analysis: a simulation study Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Sep 15;182(6):520-7. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwv098
  • Lu J. Youngyun S., Miao-Shan Y. and Sun SS, (2014) Patterns of change in total-bone mineral density and bone mineral contents from childhood into young adulthood J Clin Densitom. 2016 Apr-Jun;19(2):180-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jocd.2014.08.001. Epub 2014 Oct 18.
  • Niemeier JP, Perrin PB, Holcomb MG, Rolston CD, Artman LK, Lu J, Nersessova KS. Gender Differences in Awareness and Outcomes During Acute Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Recovery, J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2014 Jul 16;23(7):573-80. Epub 2014 Jun 16.
  • Yang S, Eaton CB, Lu J, Lapane KL, Application of marginal structural modeling in pharmacoepidemiologic studies: a systematic review, Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Jun;23(6):560-71. doi: 10.1002/pds.3569.
  • Andelic N1, Ye J, Tornas S, Roe C, Lu J, Bautz-Holter E, Moger T, Sigurdardottir S, Schanke AK, Aas E. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of continuous chain of rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury, Journal of Neurotrauma. 2014 Jul Vol. 31, No. 14: 1313-1320
  • Maas AI, Murray GD, Roozenbeek B, Lingsma HF, Butcher I, McHugh GS, Weir J, Lu J, Steyerberg EW International Mission on Prognosis Analysis of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury (IMPACT) Study Group. Advancing care for traumatic brain injury: findings from the IMPACT studies and perspectives on future research. Lancet Neurol. 2013 Dec;12(12):1200-10.

Traumatic Brain Injury

The traumatic brain injury (TBI) research program in the Division of Epidemiology focuses in three major areas: (1) to understand and evaluate outcome misclassification in, and develop methods to minimize its impact on TBI clinical trials; (2) to synthesize the evidence regarding the treatment of TBI and improve experimental study design in TBI research; and (3) to develop intervention programs for persons with chronic TBI and evaluate health and economic outcomes in such intervention programs.

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